Punctuated Equilibria Paradigm and Security in the Modern World
Punctuated Equilibria Paradigm and Security in the Modern World
Since the dawn of recorded history, predicting, preventing, mitigating and bringing both man-made and natural challenges under manageable levels has been a permanent fixture of humanity’s saga. The current report on “Punctuated Equilibria Paradigm and Security in the Modern World” (December, 2018) is one of the most recent efforts to provide broader academic analysis on the complex threats and responses involved. The perspectives of the Czech civilian and military experts discussing the punctuated equilibria theory in this specific context, and based on their own professional experiences, contributes significantly to the public discourse in the field of security concerns.
Two Decades of Combating Terrorism: Tactical and Strategic Lessons
Undoubtedly, conflicts emerge from ideological, religious, and national animosities that will continue to make the terrorism challenge a global problem for the remainder of the twenty-first century.
This October 2018 report on "Two Decades of Combating Terrorism: Tactical and Strategic Lessons" follows various remarks and perspectives on whether the international community is capable of crafting adequate responses to terrorism, diffusing expanding conflicts, and engaging in constructive peace processes.
An enduring fixture of international affairs is the fact that, throughout the history of the world, nothing is static. Empires, countries, communities, and nearly entire civilizations have risen and declined while others became engaged in endless struggle for power within and among social and political identifiable structures.
This August 2018 report on "Security Challenges in the Balkans" aims to illuminate the perspectives of key nations of the Baltic region and the security challenges they each face as it relates to terrorism.
The Role of Diplomacy in Combating Terrorism: Selected International Perspectives
From the dawn of history “diplomacy” has been utilized as a permanent mode of statecraft in the struggle for power within and among nations during peace and war.
The purpose of this March 2018 report on “The Role of Diplomacy in Combating Terrorism: Selected International Perspectives” is to highlight insights from foreign diplomats on threats and challenges to officials and their missions, analysis of statecraft, and “best practices” responses to radicalization and violence.
Combating Biological Terrorism: Roadmaps for Global Strategies
Recent epidemics, such as Ebola and Zika, and the potential dangers of biological terrorism from both state and non-state actors highlight the urgent need to address these challenges through international partnerships and comprehensive biosecurity strategies to reduce the gravest health risks at home and abroad.
This January 2018 report on “Combating Biological Terrorism: Roadmaps for Global Strategies” follows several earlier related publications, such as “Biological Terrorism: Past Lessons and Future Outlook” (June 2017) and “Preventing WMD Terrorism: Ten Perspectives” (August 2017).
The Role of Diplomacy in Combating Terrorism: Selected U.S. Perspectives
In view of the multiple security challenges to international peace and order posed by the intensification of terrorist attacks for over the past half-century, governmental, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental bodies have developed tactical and strategic responses on national, regional, and global levels. The role of diplomacy is, indeed, a critical element in the evolving process.
The purpose of this report on “The Role of Diplomacy in Combating Terrorism: Selected U.S. Perspectives” to focus specifically on the role of diplomacy in combating terrorism relevant to experiences of the United States and their implications internationally. The key question is whether the U.S. and the international community is capable of crafting adequate responses to terrorism, diffusing expanding conflicts regionally and inter-regionally, engaging in constructive peace processes, and striking a delicate balance between security measures and democratic value systems.
Terrorism and the Rule of Law: Selected Perspectives
Ensuring the safety and interests of citizens at home and abroad continues to be every government’s paramount responsibility. The purpose of this report is to focus on the interface between terrorism and the rule of law. The key question is whether nations can strike a balance between security concerns and protecting civil liberties and constitutional order.
“Terrorism and the Rule of Law: Selected Perspectives” features presentations by experts with extensive academic and government experience. Some of the topics covered include the “War on Terror,” the role of intelligence, law enforcement, detention, civil and military trials, punishment of terrorists, hostage-taking, and other relevant issues.
Preventing the proliferation of biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear weapons has been a major priority for many nation states in the post-World War II era. Additionally, in the aftermath of 9/11, there has been a growing awareness globally of the potential dangers posed by terrorist groups who may resort to WMD capabilities.
The purpose of this report on “Preventing WMD Terrorism: Ten Perspectives” is to provide some recent insights from experts on lessons learned, assessments of future challenges, and offer recommendations on response strategies to reduce the risk on national and international levels. The ten contributors to this publication have extensive academic and government experience.
Biological Terrorism: Past Lessons and Future Outlook
Biological Terrorism: Past Lessons and Future Outlook
Biological security concerns are permanent fixtures of history, ranging from Mother Nature’s infectious diseases to man-made threats by state and non-state actors. Thus, as the international community is currently approaching the 100 year anniversary of the 1918 influenza pandemic that killed an estimated 50-100 million people, it is assessing the implications of the recent epidemics of Ebola and Zika, considering potential dangers of biological terrorism, and beginning to offer recommendations on response strategies to reduce the risk on national, regional, and global levels.
This June 2017 report on “Biological Terrorism: Past Lessons and Future Outlook” serves as an academic effort to provide insights from former U.S. officials, members of Congress, and other experts on these looming security challenges.
Latin America’s Strategic Outlook: Populist Politics, Health Concerns, and Other Security Challenges
Latin America continues to face multiple security challenges including natural disasters, infectious diseases, organized crime, terrorism, migration, economic development, and threats to democratic governance.
This April 2017 report on “Latin America’s Strategic Outlook: Populist Politics, Health Concerns, and Other Security Challenges” deals with recent security-related developments such as the Rio Olympics, the Zika epidemic, and post-Castro-era assessments.
On April 13, 2017, the Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies (IUCTS) published its eighth annual report, “Terrorism in North Africa and the Sahel in 2016,” authored by Prof. Yonah Alexander, Director-IUCTS. The report finds the region & global community facing the most serious security challenges since 9/11, from natural and man-made threats. The rise of the Islamic State and the resilience of al-Qa’ida and their affiliates in Africa in 2016 have resulted in continued instability on the continent with a costly strategic impact inter-regionally. The study recommends the U.S. & allies engage more effectively to slow a security crisis that is erupting across Africa’s “arc of instability.”
On February 17, 2015 the Inter-‐University Center for Terrorism Studies (IUCTS) published its sixth annual report, “Terrorism in North Africa and the Sahel in 2014,” authored by Prof. Yonah
Alexander, Director-‐IUCTS. The report finds the region & global community facing the most serious security challenges since 9/11, from natural and man-‐made threats ranging from Ebola to
extremism. The rise of the so-‐called 'Islamic State' and resilience of al-‐Qaida & affiliates contributed to a 25% jump in terrorist attacks in N. Africa & the Sahel in 2014, the
highest level since 9/11. The study recommends the US & allies engage more effectively to slow a security crisis that is erupting across Africa’s “arc of instability."
International Cooperation in Combating Terrorism: The Next Phase?"
In 2013 terrorism has continued to challenge global stability and security. It represented the highest annual total of attacks since 911. The role of international cooperation in combating
terrorism has therefore become more critical than ever before.
To assess the various strategic efforts both regionally and inter-regionally, a group of diplomats discussed past lessons and future outlook during a seminar held on September 27, 2013 at the
Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.
The event was co-sponsored by the Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies, the Inter-University Center for Legal Studies, at the International Law Institute and the Center for National
Security Law, University of Virginia School of Law.
The fifth annual report on “Terrorism in North Africa and the Sahel in 2013” was released on January 24, 2014.
According to the report’s findings, the record of 2013 indicates that terrorist attacks in the Maghreb and the Sahel increased an alarming 60 percent from the previous year, totaling 230
incidents region-wide, the highest yearly total since 9/11.
The report recommends more effective engagement by the US and its allies to prevent the brewing security crisis from erupting in Africa’s “arc of instability,” from the Atlantic to the Red Sea.
A New Publication warns that Hizballah, the Lebanese “Party of God” threatens the United States and the entire international community as seriously as Al
Qa’ida’s global terrorist hydra.
In light of the growing debate over the Geneva deal with Iran, the tactical and strategic role of Hizballah, Tehran’s major terrorist proxy in the Middle East
and beyond, is becoming more critical for any future diplomatic negotiations. The new timely publication on “Combating Hizballah’s Global Network” provides an updated reality-check on the nature
and potential challenges of Iran’s most effective terrorist tool in the coming months and years. It was co-authored by Professor Yonah Alexander (Director, Inter-University Center for Terrorism
Studies), Dr. Matthew Levitt (Director, Stein Program on Counterterrorism and Intelligence, Senior Fellow, Washington Institute for Near East Policy), Professor Amit Kumar (Edmund A. Walsh School
of Foreign Service, Georgetown), and Dan Mariaschin (Executive Vice President at B'nai B'rith International).
The just released report focuses on Hizballah’s ideology, objectives, organizational structures, major terrorist activities around the world, the Iranian
connection, and what the international community, particularly the United States and Europe can do to confront the growing threat to all societies.
Canada's experience with homegrown "foreign affinity" terrorism, namely threats with international connections, are expanding. In 2013, for example, Canadian citizens inspired by
Al-Qa’ida's ideology, plotted to bomb the British Columbia legislature in Victoria as well as derail a New York City-Montreal train full with innocent passengers. And it has been reported
that Canadian nationals have joined the al-Shabaab terrorist group that attacked a mall in Nairobi (Kenya) and others have participated in operations elsewhere, including Algeria, Yemen, Syria,
The report on “Canada and Terrorism: Selected Perpetrators” (published in September 2013) provides a context for understanding the challenge of radicalization, extremism and violence in Canada
that is rooted in regional, ethnic and political conflicts at home and abroad. Selected profiles of Canadian citizens as well as foreigners residing in Canada personify the ugly face of the
The research for this study initially began in 2006 and completed in Spring 2013. A larger study on "Canada and Terrorism: Threats and Responses" is expected to be completed in 2014.
This work is undertaken by the Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies (administered by both the International Center for Terrorism Studies at Potomac Institute for Policy Studies and
the Inter-University Center for Legal Studies at the International Law Institute). Professor Edgar H. Brenner, the late co-director of the Inter-University Center for Legal Studies
and Professor Yonah Alexander, director of the Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies are the principal investigators of the study. Academic support is provided by Professor Don Wallace
Jr., Chairman, International Law Institute; Bill Mays, International Law Institute; and Marie-Aude Ferrière, Université Paris II Pantheon Assas- France.
For further information, please contact the Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, 901 North Stuart Street Suite 200 Arlington, VA 22203 Tel.:
Terrorism in North Africa & the Sahel: Global Reach and Implications
The Maghreb—Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia—as well as adjacent parts of the Sahel—Chad, Mali, and Niger—and for the past several years also Nigeria, have emerged as some of the
most worrying strategic challenges to the international community. The purpose of the “Terrorism in North Africa and the Sahel in 2012: Global Reach and Implications” is to focus on
the security environment during the past year, regarding these countries, with the hope that further research in this critical strategic region will be undertaken.
Central Asian Security Challenges: 2012 and Beyond
This report details the local, national and regional security challenges which the nations of Central Asia currently face. Given the growing international demand for energy and raw materials,
this region importance to the international community increases daily. The vast geographical and demographic differences have already been, and will continue to be, a source of contention between
state and non-state actors alike for years to come.
Currently, one year after the beginning of the unprecedented explosion of the Arab Spring, the only certainty about future developments in the broader Middle East is uncertainty, and therefore
the United States’ strategic and tactical responses are understandably at a foggy cross-road. It is for this reason that a realistic analysis of the factors that contribute to stability or
instability in the turbulent region is critical if America, as well as its friends and allies, are adequately prepared to craft a pragmatic approach in this emerging security environment.
Terrorism in North, West and Central Africa: From 9/11 to the Arab Spring
The Maghreb—Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia—as well as adjacent parts of the Sahel—Chad, Mali, and Niger—have emerged as one of the most worrying strategic challenges to the international community, and yet for
decades these regions have mostly been overlooked by policy-makers in the West.
More specifically, for the past ten years terrorist attacks by al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and other militant extremists in the Maghreb and Sahel have increased
more than 500 percent from their low point in the period to hit a high of 204 attacks in 2009. In 2011, the number of terrorist attacks remains dangerously high, increasing
from2010’s total to reach 185 attacks for the year.
2011 Report: The Consequences of Terrorism- An Update on al-Qaeda and other Terrorist Threats in the Sahel & Maghreb
Terrorist attacks by al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and other extremist groups in both the Maghreb and Sahel increased 558% from their low during the period to a new high of 204 attacks
in 2009, and remain dangerously high, with 178 in 2010. Thus, over the past nine years, more than 1,100 terrorist bombings, murders, kidnappings, and ambushes against both domestic and
international targets have claimed almost 2,000 lives and 6,000 victims of violence. Moreover, according to open intelligence sources and a recent fact- finding trip to the region in January
2011, there exists growing evidence that AQIM, local traffickers, and possibly members of the Polisario are forming links with Latin American organized criminal groups for trafficking drugs and
humans via transit networks into Europe.